Early Christian Culture Badge


63 BCE – Roman Rule of Israel

4 BCE – Birth of Jesus Christ

30 CE Death of Jesus Christ

60 CE First Gospel was published

70 CE – Destruction of the first temple

313 CE – Christianity becomes a legal religion within the Roman Empire

382 CE- Saint Jerome begins translating the bible into Latin

1099 CE – Crusaders conquer Jerusalem

1189 CE- Third Crusade

1517 CE – Beginning of the Protestant Reformation


Martin Luther Short Bio

Martin Luther is important figure in early Christian culture because he is the father of the Protestant reformation. Luther became a monk because when he was studying philosophy and theology he had become unsatisfied with just reason and wanted to devote his life to God. He also felt unsatisfied as a monk because he was too critical of his failures because he thought that even though he was a monk his sin was magnified rather than weakened. Soon after he began to criticize the Catholic Church because he felt thought that faith was what would prove remission of sin not the monetary payments the Catholic Church put on sin. The church was slow to respond to his criticism so he published 95 theses detailing the problems he had with the church. He was ex-communicated from the church because he refused to recant some of his writings. He became an outlaw and towards the end of his life he spent more time writing anti-Semitic tracts because the Jews were uninterested in converting to Christianity, so he thought that they should be removed from Germany. Luther was the one that set the pathway for the Protestant reformation and he played a part in the development of western society.



Matthew Badge

Foreshadowing that Christ was a wise man

Matthew 1:21 “She will bear a son; and you shall give him the name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins.”

Matthew 3:15 “Jesus replied, ‘Let it be so for the present: it is right for us to do all that God requires.’

Matthew 4:4 “Jesus answered, ‘Scripture says, man is nor or live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.”

Matthew 4:23 “He traveled throughout Galilee, teaching in the synagogues, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom, and healing every kind of illness and infirmity among the people.”



List of miracles

Matthew 8:3 “Jesus stretched out his hand and touched him, saying, ‘I will; be clean.’ And his leprosy was cured immediately.”

Mathew 8:15 “So he took her by the hand; the fever left her, and she got up and attended to his needs.”

Matthew 8:26 “Why are you such cowards?’ he said. ‘How little faith you have!’ With that he got up and rebuked the wind and the sea, and there was a dead calm.”

Matthew 9:6-7 “He turned to the paralyzed man – ‘stand up, take your bed, and go home.’ And he got up and went off home.”

Matthew 9:29-30 “Then he touched their eyes, and said, ‘As you have believed, so let it be’; and their sight was restored.”

Matthew 12:22 “Then they brought him a man who was possessed by a demon; he was blind and dumb, and Jesus cured him, restoring both speech and sight.”

Matthew 14:25 “Between three and six in the morning he came towards them, walking across the lake.”

Matthew 14:35-36 “They brought to him all who were ill and begged him to let them simply touch the edge of his cloak; and all who touched it were completely cured.”

Matthew 15:31 “Great with the amazement of the people when the y saw the dumb speaking, the crippled made strong, the lame walking, and the blind with their sight restored”

Matthew 21:19 “He said to the tree, ‘May you never bear fruit again!’ and at once the tree withered away.”

Matthew 28:9-10 “Suddenly Jesus was there in their path, greeting them. They came up and clasped his feet, kneeling before him. ‘Do not be afraid,’ Jesus said to them, ‘Go and take word to my brother that they are to leave for Galilee. They will see me there.’”


List of disabilities

Matthew 8:16 “and he drove the spirits out with a word and healed all who were sick”

Matthew 8:6 “Sir,’ he said, ‘my servant is lying at home paralyzed and racked with pain.’

Matthew 8:14 “Jesus then went to Peter’s house and found Peter’s mother-in-law in bed with fever.”

Matthew 8:16 “That evening they brought to him many who were possessed by demons”

Matthew 8:28 “When he reached the country of the “Gadarenes on the other side, two men came to meet him from among the tombs; they were possessed by demons, and so violent that no one dared pass that way.”

Matthew 8:33 “The men in charge of them took to their heels, and made for the town, where they told the whole story, and what had happened to the madmen.”

Matthew 9:27 “As he went on from there Jesus was followed by two blind men, shouting, ‘Have pity on us, Son of David!’

Matthew 15:30 “Crowds flocked to him, bringing with them the lame, blind, dumb, and crippled, and many other sufferers.”


Popular Culture Badge
1.) Noah
  • Noah is influenced from Noah’s Ark from the book of Genesis. The movie isn’t really an exact retelling of Noah’s ark, it’s more of the writer’s interpretation of what he thought Noah’s ark was
2.) Exodus: Gods and Kings

  • Exodus: Gods and Kings was influenced by the exile of the Hebrews from Egypt who were led by Moses in the book of Exodus. The movie is also an interpretation of Exodus instead of a recreation of the book. Also, the writer of the movie tried to explain how natural disasters were the cause of Moses’s miracles.
3.) The Life of Brian
  • The Life of Brian is a religious satire of the New Testament era. It’s about this man named Brian who was born on the same day, in the stable next to where Jesus was born. It follows Brian’s life and the events that were occurring during that time, specifically the events concerning Jesus, and how it has affected Brian's life.
4.) Evan Almighty

  • Evan Almighty is influenced by Noah’s Ark from the book of Genesis.The movie is a modern day retelling of the great flood in the bible, it's about a man named Evan Baxter who is instructed by God to build an arc to save his community from a flood.
5.) The Passion of Christ

  • The Passion of Christ is influenced by the Gospels from the New Testament. It’s centered on the final 12 hours of Jesus’s life and flashbacks to different points in his life.

Heresy Badge

Definition of Gnosticism from the Merriam-Webster dictionary
  • the thought and practice especially of various cults of late pre-Christian and early Christian centuries distinguished by the conviction that matter is evil and that emancipation comes through gnosis
Definition of Heresy from the Merriam-Webster dictionary
  1. 1a: adherence to a religious opinion contrary to church dogma: denial of a revealed truth by a baptized member of the Roman Catholic Church: an opinion or doctrine contrary to church dogma
  2. 2a: dissent or deviation from a dominant theory, opinion, or practice: an opinion, doctrine, or practice contrary to the truth or to generally accepted beliefs or standards

Five Defenses why the Heretics shouldn't be destroyed
1.) They are a part of history
  • The Heretics tell a story of what other people believed were during this time period
2.) Just because you don’t like it doesn’t mean it needs to be destroyed
  • It may not be important to you, but it’s important to someone else, and therefor it should be preserved.
3.) There’s something to be learned
  • It may seem meaningless now, but someday when other’s discovery it, it may be important to understanding the society we live in right now.
4.) Perspective
  • they offer a perspective that is different from other religious teachings
5.) Opposing positions won’t go away
  • If they are destroyed that won’t take away the opposition that is within the heretical texts, and if they are destroyed new ones will probably appear

Revelation Badge
I wanted to compare and contrast the way the four horseman were depicted, because a lot of them were quite different, but some of them had similarities.

Picture #1
horseman two.jpg
Picture #2
horseman one.jpg
Picture #3
horseman three.jpg
The sequence of the horses I thought were quite similar to each other. In picture #2 and #3, from left to right, is the pale horse, black horse, red horse, and white horse. The difference between the sequences is the pale horse in the #2 picture is below the other three horses. The first picture is different because it’s the opposite, from left to right it’s the white horse, red horse, black horse, and pale horse. It is the similar to the other two pictures in the sense that the white and pale horse are on opposite ends and that the black horse is next to the pale horse and the red horse is next to the white horse. The way the horseman are shown is different in each picture. The first picture all horseman don’t seem to resemble humans, they seem menacing and evil. The second picture all of the horseman resemble real people. The third picture the white and red horseman resemble people, but the black horse seems to be fading into a skeleton, and the pale horse is a skeleton. Another similarity in the pictures is to what the horseman are holding. In all three pictures the white horseman is carrying a bow, the red horseman has a sword, and the black horse has a scale. However, the difference is with the pale horse, he seems to be holding different things in each picture. In the first picture he doesn’t seem to be holding anything, the second he has a sword, and the third he has staff.


Archaeology Badge
1.) Merneptah Stele
2.)
merneptah-stele (1).jpg
3.)
1.) The Merneptah Stele was discovered by British archaeologist Flinders Petrie in Thebes, Egypt in 1896. Merneptah was a king in ancient Egypt in 1213-1203B.C.E, and the stone slab is engraved with a hymn and a description of his military victories in Africa and the Near East. One of the nation states that Merneptah conquered that is engraved on the slap is Israel. This artifact is significant to biblical history because it is the first time the land of Israel was mentioned outside of the bible. The nation state of Israel isn’t mentioned in great detail on the slab, but it’s still important because it shows how important Israel was during that time period. If Israel wasn’t important then it wouldn’t have been engraved on the stone slab. Before this slab was discovered the nation state of Israel was only mentioned in the bible, and then this slab was discovered, and it added a little bit more depth to the biblical narrative.

Hebrew Culture Badge
1.) Timeline of important events in the Hebrew Culture
1731 B.C.E God’s convent with Abraham
1313 B.C.E Exodus from Egypt
960 B.C.E Completion of the first temple
586 B.C.E Destruction of the first temple by Babylon
539 B.C.E Cyrus allows for the Jews to return back to Israel
167 B.C.E Rededication of the second temple in Israel
70 CE Destruction of the second temple by Rome
1492 CE Expulsion from Spain
1939 CE The Holocaust
1948CE the state of Israel is established

2.) Judas Maccabeus

3.)Judas Maccabeus is an important person in Hebrew history. He preserved the Jewish religion and prevented the spread of Hellenism in Judea when he defended his country from the invasion by the Seleucid king. A revolt against the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes was led by a Jewish priest named Mattathias. When Mattathias died his son Judas Maccabeus who took over and successfully drove out the Syrians. He also ordered for the second temple to be cleansed, rebuilt, and for its menorah to be lit.This is how the popular Jewish holiday Hanukkah came to be. Hanukkah is an eight day long holiday that celebrates the re dedication of the second temple in Israel.

The Great Flood Badge

Deucalion
Deucalion.jpg
When Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha got out of their wooden chest after the flood they were horrified to see “everywhere around them were dead bodies of humans and animals; everything was covered with silt, slime, and algae” (Parallel Myths, 129). I think this picture represents the flood as its occurring. The picture is very morbid, it looks like there’s people trying to escape on boats and rafts, but there’s a lot of people and animals that have died, which connects to what Deucalion and Pyrrha saw after the flood. Even though the flood myth Deucalion has polytheistic characteristics to it, it does have parallels to the Story of Noah. Humans were wicked and a God or Gods had decided to destroy humanity and other forms of life. The big difference between Deucalion and the Story of Noah is that the God in the Story of Noah intended to cleanse the earth and start over. God had chosen Noah and his family to survive, and Noah had built the ark and had to choose two or seven pairs of every animal on Earth to come along with him. In Deucalion, Zeus intended to wipe out everyone, the only reason Deucalion survived was through the warning of his father, the Titan named Prometheus.

Manu and the Fish
Matsya-protecting-Manu.jpg
This was probably my favorite flood myth out of all of them. I was surprised by the way the fish was presented in every picture I found. The reason I was surprised was because in the story Manu had to put the fish in a clay jar for safety, and as the fish grew Manu placed the fish into bigger clay jars. Then I saw this picture, and saw how massive this fish was, and I wondered how big those clay jars must have been. Overall, I do think this picture represents the story really well. The rope that Manu tied from his ship to the fish is in the picture. The difference that I saw was there were more people in the boat than I expected. The story never specifically said that other people would be saved. But it makes sense that Manu would bring other people with him. The difference I saw with this myth compared to the other myths was that there wasn't any reasoning behind the flood. Manu was just told that there was going to be a flood and in order to stay alive he had to protect the fish, and the fish would guide him to saftey. In the other flood myths there was usually a cause for the flood, and there was some concluding ending to it. In Manu and the fish the ending was that they reached a mountain, there was no point made after he reached the mountain.

Utnapishtim
utnapishtim.jpg

The flood myth called Utnapishtim starts out very similar to the Story of Noah. There is a good man named Utnapishtim who is warned of a great flood coming and that he must tear down his house and build a ship. He also has to take animals of every kind, male and female, and bring them with him on the ship along with his family. This parallels the Story of Noah, because it’s about a righteous good man who is told by God that there is a flood coming and that he must build a ship and bring his family and every kind of animal with him. The difference in Utnapishtim is that it’s polytheistic, where in the Story of Noah it's monotheistic. Also, in the Story of Noah the earth was destroyed because the humans had become too wicked, so the earth needed to be cleansed of that wickedness. In Utnapishtim humanity is destroyed not because the humans are wicked, but because the Ishtar, the goddess of beauty, had insulted the assembly of gods. The punishment for insulting the assembly of gods was for “he children turned to clay as a result of her misdeeds” (Parallel Myths, 126). In this story humanity was being punished for the wrong doing of a God, where in a lot of the other myths it was because humanity had become so evil the only thing that could be done was to wipe them out and start over.